2023 You need to write a separate response for each peer s posting each response needs to be supported with at

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Psychology 2023 Literature Review of Similar Programs, Interventions

You need to write a separate response for each peer s posting each response needs to be supported with at 2023


You need to write a separate response for each peer’s posting each response needs to be supported with at least two references.




1st peer posting.




Special Olympics is a unique entity in itself and it has some of the best things that can be offered to those who have developmental disabilities. It is so unique because it is something that can be person centered to assist the individuals. The idea of person-centered allows for the individual to be the focus and not force them to do things that they are not interested in and do not understand. According to Bowers (2005), “With people with ID actively seeking opportunities to have more control over their lives and to have their social roles valued, this study offers an important contribution by listening to the perspectives of people with ID who attend and do not attend Special Olympics, alongside the views of their families and the staff who work with them. ” Person-centered planning is something that is necessary in order for the individual to do this successfully. According to Demanchick (2003), “Although cognitively and developmentally deficient, these two individuals experienced growth during a series of sessions in which the core conditions of empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard were present. These two adults with developmental disabilities flourished when given the opportunity to experience Person-Centered Play Therapy. Mark and Melissa were able to experience greater autonomy, environmental and self-control, confidence and self-expression.”


Special Olympics provides individuals with developmental disabilities an outlet to do the things that people who are considered normal do. According to Bowers (2005), “Families also felt Special Olympics provided opportunities to strengthen relationships within the whole family and allowed them to socialise within new circles in the community.” It is important to be able to have programs that that are designed and suitable for the community. When this does not happen, it becomes a barrier for the individual that the program is designed to help. According to Bowers (2005), “Whilst being involved in Special Olympics may have benefits for families and athletes, there can be practical implications that may result in barriers to participation.” Evidence based practices is a unique way in which one can get things done to o what needs to be done; however, there comes a time where there are some issues with that as well. According to Royse (2016), “according to the model of EBP, the practitioner must respect the client’s values, and not simply apply research-supported treatments without taking into account client’s views.”




Bowers, K., Corby, D., Lambert, V., Staines, A., McVeigh, T., McKeon, M., . . . Sweeney, M. R. (2016). People with intellectual disability and their families’ perspectives of special olympics ireland: Qualitative findings from the SOPHIE study. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 20(4), 354-370. doi:10.1177/1744629515617059


Demanchick, S. P., Cochran, N. H., & Cochran, J. L. (2003). Person-centered play therapy for adults with developmental disabilities. International Journal Of Play Therapy, 12(1), 47-65. doi:10.1037/h0088871


2nd Peer Posting




Top of Form


Self-harm has been found to affect 13.2% of adolescents at some point in their life. Suicide is a leading cause in death in adolescents in the West, however the self-harm rate is much higher (Ougrin et al., 2012). “There is growing evidence that poor treatment adherence is a marker of unfavorable psychosocial outcomes in the adolescents presenting with self-harm” (Ougrin et al., 2012). Adolescents that self-harm generally have depression. It is believed that treating the depression instead of self-harm will help the adolescent with both. Cognitive behavior therapy is a form of therapy that helps adolescents with self-harm when you work from the depression point of view. Dialectical Behavior Therapy is “directed towards creating a ‘life worth living’, primarily through stopping self-harm and enhancing emotional regulation” (Ougrin et al., 2012). This works for an individual that has borderline personality disorder.


According to Apter (2014) individuals that self-harm have some form of undiagnosed borderline personality disorder. In this article Apter (2014) is try to find a type of treatment that helps to prevent individuals from continuing to self-harm. It was found that dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents tended to help prevent students from further self-harm better then control therapy (Apter, 2014).


Self-harm is a cause of some form of mental disorder; depression, borderline personality etc. In order for the counselor to be able to help the client they need to find out why the client is causing self-harm. What is going on in that individuals life.


How does your hypothetical program address the clinical area of concern for the population it seeks to serve?


In this hypothetical program, dance and kick boxing can help depressed children find a way to express themselves and release stress that they are experiencing. This gives them something stable to look forward to and allows them to build more relationships with others; children/adolescents and adults so they have a positive relationship with an individual that will help them through their situation. Depression is the leading reason why adolescents do self-harm so by having this program they have another way to express themselves instead of hurting.


Briefly discuss the issues involved when programs must design plans that are suitable for their community when current literature does not provide evidence-based practices for all aspects of programs that are needed. How can formative and process evaluation bridge this gap?


When a program is new and has to adjust to their community it can be difficult to get the right program going without to many problems. By monitoring what is going on with the program the community can make adjustments to make it better. By using the logic model, adjustments can be made to make the program better for the clients attending. With a new program a program evaluation will be needed to help the community see where the program is working and where it is not, this allows to the improvements. Improvement is needed for a program to grow (Chyung et al., 2013).


The counselor needs to keep track of the progress the clients are making so they can tell where the program needs to be adjusted. By using formative and process evaluation the program can be adjusted to fit the needs of the clients better. In order to get the best feedback for the program they can do interviews, surveys and even just observe the clients to see how the program is going (Royse, Thyer, & Padgett, 2016).




Apter, A., (2014). Adolescent self-harm: new horizons?. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 53 (10). p. 1048.


Chyung, S. Y., Wisniewski, A., Inderbitzen, B., and Campbell, D. (2013) An improvement-and accountability-oriented program evaluation: An evaluation of adventure scouts program. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 26(3). 87-115.


Royse, D., Thyer, B. A., & Padgett, D. K. (2016). Program evaluation: An introduction to an evidence-based approach (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781305101968






Today is: Friday, April 28, 2017





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