2023 Topic Neurobiology Reply Reply to 2 other classmates by offering 1 new piece of information

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Psychology 2023 Forum 2 Replies

Topic Neurobiology Reply Reply to 2 other classmates by offering 1 new piece of information 2023


Topic: Neurobiology

Reply: Reply to 2 other classmates by offering 1 new piece of information to add to their discussion of the different theories. Each reply must be minimum 250 word APA format cited referenced biblical worldview

Reference:“Liberty University Custom: Wong, D., Hall, K. R., Justice, C. A., and Hernandez, L. W.  (2015). Human growth and development (Custom Package). Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publication. ISBN: 9781506355153. *Custom bundle contains Wong et al. (2015), Counseling individuals through the lifespan, ISBN: 9781452217949 and supplemental journal articles.

Carolyn Post Shaking Baby Syndrome—  Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is defined by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH) as “a type of inflicted traumatic brain injury that happens when a baby is violently shaken”.  The syndrome is generally characterized by subdural hemorrhages, retinal hemorrhages, damage to the spinal cord and neck, fractures of the ribs and bones, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (NIH, 2018,  Strouse, 2018).  Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined by NIH as “a form of acquired brain injury…occurs when a sudden trauma causes damage to the brain”.  Levels of TBI include mild, moderate, and severe and depend on the extent of damage to the brain (NIH). Symptoms can include loss of consciousness, headache, confusion, light-headedness, dizziness, blurred vision or tired eyes, ringing in the ears, bad taste in the mouth, fatigue or lethargy, behavioral or mood changes and trouble with concentration, memory, attention, and thinking (NIH).    While the prognosis of a patient with TBI varies with the severity of the injury, infants and young children who suffer from SBS have a worse prognosis, from possible blindness to neurological and mental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and/or cognitive delays (NIH).  

Traumatic brain injury and shaken baby syndrome share a common feature of damage caused to the brain from external forces.  As the brain develops from infancy into young adulthood, neurological pathways are being formed and reinforced through repeated experiences (Liberty, 2014).  When trauma such as being violently shaken is experienced in a developing brain, those pathways can be disrupted, broken off and no longer connected.  Dr. Sibcy (Liberty, 2014) explains that the brain develops from the bottom to the top and from the right to the left and literally “wires itself” as growth and development progress.  When the wiring process is interrupted or exposed to trauma, injuries such as axonal injury can occur (McKee & Daneshvar, 2015).  Axonal injury, a shearing of the axon (the part of the neuron that transmits messages from the cell body), can be a result of TBI and SBS.  When the pathway is disrupted, it often is unable to be repaired due to the distance axons can cover in the brain.  This can result in devastating effects on the brain, causing major disruptions in development.  


Liberty University, 2014. Neurobiology. https://learn.liberty.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=493684_1&content_id=_29326827_1

McKee, A.C. & Daneshvar, D.H. (2015). The neuropathology of traumatic brain injury. In J. Grafman & A.M. Salazar (Eds.), Handbook of Clinical Neurology (pp. 45-66) Retrieved from https://ac-els-cdn-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu

Mohandes, E. (2008). Neurobiology of spirituality.  Mens Sana Monographs, 6.1, 63-80.  doi:10.4103/0973-1229.33001

Newberg, A. Spirituality and the aging brain. Generations: San Francisco, Volume 35 Issue 2, (Summer, 2011):  83-91.  Retrieved from https://sarch-proquest-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2019, February 11).  Shaken Baby Syndrome Information Page: Retrieved Februaruy 18, 2019, from URL ninds.nih.gov

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2019, Februaruy 11). Traumatic Brain Injury Information Page: Retrieved February 18, 2019, from URL ninds.nih.gov

Matthew Post Epilepsy— According to the American Academy of Neurology Epilepsy consists of a “spectrum of brain disorders that range from sever, life-threatening and disabling, to ones that are much more benign.”  (American Academy of Neurology). Epilepsy’s most common form is in recurrent seizures; abnormal burst of electrical discharges that disrupts the normal electrical function of the brain.  (Gavvala & Schuele, 2016).  Convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness can occur as well. If the entire brain is affected, many experience a loss of awareness and a stiffening and shaking of the body. If the seizure starts in a small area of the brain, a person can experience a warning shot in the brain known as an aura.  (Gavvala & Schuele, 2016). An aura can take the forms of numbness or tingling, unusual smells, sounds, or visual distortions.  (Gavvala & Schuele, 2016).  Epilepsy in children as well, is known to cause behavioral and emotional problems, and prolonged and uncontrolled seizures can lead to brain damage. (American Academy of Neurology).  Diagnosis for epilepsy is usually done through EEG (Electroencephalogram) exams and Brain imaging tests.  These tests look for abnormalities in the brain that can lead to seizures.  Epilepsy cannot be cured, but for 70% of diagnosed epileptic patients, seizures can be controlled with modern medicines and surgical treatments.  Scientists are finding breakthroughs and studying how genes and genetic information contribute to seizures, how neurotransmitters interact with brain cells that control nerve firing, and non-neuronal cells in the brain contribute to seizures. (American Academy of Neurology).  

Gawala, Jay R; Schuele, Stephan U.  (1998). Epilepsy. the journal of the American Medical Association. , 2016, Vol.316(24), p.2686

Newberg, A. B. (2011). Spirituality and the aging brain. Generations, 35(2), 83-91. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/docview/906522803?accountid=12085 https://www.aan.com/


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